The Wellcome Trust has a £23.2 billion investment portfolio (at 30 September 2017) which funds all the work we do. The portfolio is managed by our investment team.
Our overall investment objective is to generate 4.5% real return over the long term.
This is to provide for real increases in annual expenditure while preserving the Trust's capital base to balance the needs of current and future beneficiaries.
We use this absolute return strategy because it aligns asset allocation with funding requirements and provides a competitive framework in which to judge individual investments.
Total portfolio cumulative net returns since 1986 (%)
Our investments history
Between 1936 and 1986, the Trust was the sole owner of the Wellcome Foundation, Henry Wellcome's drug company.
In 1986, the Trust began floating shares in the Foundation and used the proceeds to diversify its assets.
Since this first flotation, the endowment has experienced an average 14% growth every year. This has allowed us to greatly increase the funds available to disburse in charitable grants.
Total portfolio net returns (£) period to 30 September 2017
|Annualised return in £ (%)|
|Trailing 1 year||16.9||2.2||14.7|
|Trailing 3 years||13.8||1.0||12.8|
|Trailing 5 years||15.0||1.5||13.5|
|Trailing 10 years||9.1||2.4||6.7|
|Trailing 20 years||8.5||1.9||6.6|
|Since October 1985||13.9||2.9||11.2|
|Cumulative return in £ (%)|
|Trailing 3 years||47||3||44|
|Trailing 5 years||101||8||93|
|Trailing 10 years||138||26||112|
|Trailing 20 years||407||47||360|
|Since October 1985||6,410||139||6,271|
|Net returns include impact of all external management fees/expenses and custodial costs.|
Henry Wellcome's will creates the Wellcome Group (now the Wellcome Trust). The Group owns the Wellcome Foundation Limited, the drug company.
Death duties are considerable and have to be partially funded by selling some of Henry's historical medical collection. The remainder after death duties is £3 million.
The Wellcome Foundation Limited begins developing breakthrough drugs, and sales grow from £10m a year in 1952 to £50m a year by the 1960s.
Blockbuster drugs such as Zyloric (1966) and Septrin (1967) increase sales to about £400m a year by 1977.
Zovirax is developed. It becomes the world's first billion-dollar drug in 1985.
Henry's will is legally amended to allow the flotation of 21% of the drug company. The Foundation becomes a public limited company, Wellcome plc.
A secondary share offering raises a further £2.3bn and allows the Trust to diversify its assets further.
The Foundation merges with Glaxo.
In the years up to 2001, the Trust sells out of the combined Glaxo Wellcome shares to diversify its holding.
The Trust becomes the only UK-domiciled non-public sector organisation with an Aaa/AAA credit rating and the first UK charity to issue a listed bond.
In the Trust's first 20 years, we disbursed a total of £1.17m of dividends. Until 1972, our trustees allowed the majority of profits to be reinvested to build up the strength of the drug company.
Between 1965 and 1991, we disbursed about £100m.
Disbursements grew from £20m in 1985 to £100m in 1992 and £200m in 1994.
Over the 2016–17 financial year, our charitable disbursements rose to £1,221m.
The Wellcome Trust endowment now stands at approximately £23.2bn.
Our approach to investing is set out in our Investment policy [PDF 62KB]. This is reviewed at least every two years by our Board of Governors and Investment Committee.
We welcome the introduction of the FRC Stewardship Code [PDF 140KB], and support the industry's continued efforts to strengthen the role played by institutional investors in corporate governance.
Philosophy and competitive advantages
In the deliberate absence of any pre-determined strategic asset allocation, with the exception of very broad asset ranges, the following investment beliefs drive our asset allocation:
- Sufficient liquidity must be maintained to avoid the forced sale of assets at distressed prices. Real assets offer the best long-term growth prospects and provide protection against inflationary pressures.
- To maximise investment returns from global economic activity, the portfolio should be very broadly diversified with no innate geographical bias.
- We seek to use the advantages of our long-term investment horizon, ability to tolerate high levels of short-term volatility, AAA balance sheet and proactive governance structure in our investment portfolio.
- The best returns will be driven by combining aligned partnership with the strongest external managers and building in-house resource to own selected assets directly.
- We're generally flexible about the vehicles we invest in, whether public companies or private partnerships.
The net value of our investment asset base was approximately £23.2bn at 30 September 2017.
We invest across all asset classes and, for reporting purposes, split them into four areas:
- public equity
- hedge funds
- private equity
- property and infrastructure.
Investment asset allocation at 30 September
|Change in allocation Sept 2016 to Sept 2017 %|
|Total public equities||13,487||18,095||52.3||50.5||48.0||1.8|
|Equity index futures and options*||233||312||0.9||-||-||0.9|
|Commodity futures and options*||310||416||1.2||-||-||1.2|
|Directional hedge funds||360||483||1.4||1.9||2.4||(0.5)|
|Non-directional hedge funds||505||678||2.0||2.3||3.2||(0.3)|
|Multi asset partnerships||690||925||2.7||3.1||2.9||(0.4)|
|Net overlay assets*||(13)||(18)||(0.0)||(0.0)||(0.1)||(0.0)|
|Total assets net of all liabilities||23,188||31,110||-||-||-||-|
|*As of September 2017, the equity and commodity derivatives have been shown separately as notional exposures, with futures offsets included in other liabilities. Net overlay assets comprise foreign exchange overlays and the related cash collateral amounts due to counterparties.|
Wellcome Trust Bonds are stated at quoted offer price in the table above. The bonds are carried at amortised cost in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Investment assets exclude programme-related investments.
The investment asset allocation presents net investment assets by investment strategy rather than the statutory asset and liabilities classification basis presented in the Financial Statements. For example, the market value of Long Only Equities Global is the net market value of the equities, cash, investment debtors and investment creditors held within portfolios with a Global Equities investment strategy.
A significant portion of our portfolio is invested in shares listed on equity markets around the world. We do this both directly through a portfolio of shares managed by our Investment team and through third-party managers.
There's no innate geographical bias in our equity portfolio – we're focused on owning well-managed businesses that are best able to take advantage of economic opportunities around the world.
When we appoint external equity managers to manage money on our behalf, we prefer active managers who share our long-term time horizon and run concentrated portfolios.
Public equity net returns (%) Period to 30 September 2017
|Annualised return in £ (%)|
|1 year||3 years||5 years|
|Total public equities||19.6||15.3||15.5|
|MSCI AC World||15.5||15.1||15.0|
Public equity allocations by strategy (£) As at 30 September
|Mega cap basket||6,091||5,213||4,055||3,883||3,352|
Direct public equity holdings > US$150m As at 30 September 2017
|Return on cost|
|4||6||Bank Of America||378||507||143%|
|8||5||Royal Dutch Shell||304||407||73%|
|23||19||Marks & Spencer||194||261||97%|
|28||22||Procter & Gamble||170||228||85%|
|31||29||Johnson & Johnson||165||221||180%|
|32||27||Sumitomo Mitsui FG||143||192||26%|
|35||26||Rio Tinto Plc||113||151||67%|
|*Return on cost has been adjusted for when the asset was held directly as a private company|
We are one of the largest institutional investors in hedge funds.
We're prepared to consider a variety of approaches but avoid funds that employ substantial leverage to achieve returns. In general, most of the funds we invest in are closed to new investors.
Hedge fund net returns (%) Period to 30 September 2017
|Annualised return in US$ (%)|
|1 year||3 years||5 years||10 years|
|Total hedge funds||13.2||4.0||7.4||4.8|
|MSCI AC World||19.3||8.0||10.8||4.4|
Hedge fund investments by strategy (£) As at 30 September
|Total hedge funds||2,368||2,463||2,376||2,165||2,040|
We have major exposure to private equity. This is mainly through partnerships with well-established buyout and venture groups across a broad range of locations and sectors.
We also selectively co-invest in direct opportunities alongside external managers.
Private equity fund net returns (%) Period to 30 September 2017
|1 year||3 years||5 years||10 years|
|MSCI AC World||19.3||8.0||10.8||4.4|
Private equity investment by strategy (£) As at 30 September
Multi-Asset Partnerships (MAPs) Period to 30 September 2017
|£ (%)||US$ (%)|
|MAPs (inception Jan 2013)||7.9||3.6||690|
Property and infrastructure
We have a global portfolio of property. Our major asset is our freehold estate in South Kensington, London.
Investment in commercial property and infrastructure is driven by finding attractive value propositions at the appropriate risk profile.
Property net returns (%) Period to 30 September 2017
|Annualised return in £ (%)|
|1 year||3 years||5 years||10 years|
|Non- residential property||9.8||7.2||5.8||1.2|
Property investments by strategy (£) As at 30 September
|Re sidential property||1,242||1,279||1,272||1,216||1,101|
|Residential property includes the South Kensington estate, other rented residential properties and services apartments.|
We are very focused on both the qualitative and quantitative risks we take in our investments.
Our Investments team focuses on qualitative risk by continually meeting managers and through ongoing due diligence.
Our internal risk and performance team analyses the overall portfolio risk as well as the quantitative risk attributable to each asset class and underlying investment.
Investment risk is monitored and managed through a policy of holistic measurement using the following parameters:
- value-at-risk (one-year horizon)
- currency risk (both £ and US$ exposure)
- equity market beta (expectation of movement in the portfolio given a certain percentage change in global equity markets)
- liquidity and forecast cash holdings.
In July 2006, we became the only UK-domiciled non-public sector organisation with an AAA credit rating and the first UK charity to issue a listed bond.
The £550m proceeds from the issue are being used for investments that, over the long term, will enable us to fund a wide range of scientific and medical research to improve health worldwide.
We received the International Financing Review award for the 2006 Sterling Bond of the Year for 'demonstrating the relevance of the capital markets to the sector and capturing the imagination of the investor community'.
Following our inaugural issue, it has been our strategy to regularly review market conditions and, on occasion, access the bond markets again when circumstances are appropriate.
We did so in:
- spring 2009 - benchmark gilts rallied and the Trust's credit spread showed signs of relative strength, given its continued AAA (stable)/Aaa (stable) ratings.
Our initial book was more than three and a half times oversubscribed given strong demand for high-quality fixed-income product. Reflecting this, we priced with the tightest credit spread over benchmark gilts in investment grade, primary, Sterling markets since December 2007.
- 2014 - demand for very long duration, high-grade issuance was significant. We issued bonds with a 45-year tenor.
Our initial order book was more than three and a half times oversubscribed, which allowed us to price at what we believe was the tightest spread for a non government-related issuer in the Sterling markets since the financial crisis of September 2008. We also believe this was the lowest coupon for a non government-related issuer in the Sterling markets for a bond with a maturity in excess of 40 years.
- January 2015 - we issued our first euro bond.
This was priced at a spread of 40bps over mid swaps, with the 1.125% coupon the lowest ever for an Aaa/AAA rated corporate in the euro bond market. It is the lowest ever coupon in the euro bond market for a corporate issuance with a tenor of longer than ten years. The initial order book was seven and a half times oversubscribed.
Details of bond issues
|Date of issue||July 2006||May 2009||May 2014||January 2015|
|Size||£550.00 MM||£275.00 MM||£400.00 MM||€400.00 MM|
|Tenor||30 years||12 years||45 years||12 years|
|Issuer||Wellcome Trust Finance PLC||The Wellcome Trust Limited,|
as trustee of the Wellcome Trust
|The Wellcome Trust Limited,|
as trustee of the Wellcome Trust
|Structure||Senior, Unsecured Bonds|
|Guarantor||The Wellcome Trust Limited, as trustee of the Wellcome Trust||N/A||N/A|
The team manages our endowment and oversees all investments.
Peter Pereira Gray
Absolute return and buyouts
Robert Coke, team head
Direct private investments
Lisha Patel, team head
Property and infrastructure
Venture and equity long/short
Geoffrey Love, team head
Risk management and performance
Sarah Fromson, head of Investment Risk
Christopher Weston, head of Investment Services
The Board of Governors determines the broad structure of our asset management arrangements. Responsibility for implementation is delegated to our Investment Committee and Investment team.
Alan Brown read natural sciences at the University of Cambridge before starting a career in the investment management industry, where he worked for almost 40 years. He has held positions as a chief investment officer for the past 23 years, most recently as an Executive Director at Schroders.
Alan's other responsibilities include Chair of the Board of the Carbon Disclosure Project, and Chair of the Board of the Westway Trust. He is a non-executive director of Pool Reinsurance Company, a scheme established to provide cover for losses arising from terrorism. Previously he was a Director of the Investment Management Association and an alternate member of the Takeover Panel.
Governor of the Wellcome Trust
Damon Buffini was educated at St John's College, University of Cambridge, where he read law, and at Harvard Business School, where he gained an MBA. He is a founding partner of Permira, a European private equity firm with global reach. He was managing partner from 1999 to 2007 and Chair from 2007 to 2010.
Under his leadership, Permira's funds under management grew from €1.9 billion to over €20 billion and the firm expanded its international network of offices from four to 12. Over the same period, Permira helped to grow and build numerous successful businesses across Europe, including Homebase, Inmarsat and global aviation services group Jet Aviation.
Damon is Chair of the Board at the National Theatre, Chair of the Royal Anniversary Trust, which administers The Queen's Anniversary Prizes for Higher and Further Education, and Senior Independent Director of the European Golf Tour. He is also co-founder of Social Business Trust, an initiative to grow social enterprises by using the knowledge, skills and capital of UK businesses.
In June 2016 Damon was knighted for his voluntary and charitable services.
Deputy Chair of the Board of Governors
Professor Davies is Dr Lee's Professor of Anatomy and Associate Head, Development, Impact and Equality, Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, and Honorary Director of the MRC Functional Genomics Unit.
Kay's research interests cover the molecular analysis of neuromuscular and neurological disease, particularly Duchenne muscular dystrophy. She has considerable experience of biotechnology companies as a conduit for translating the results of experimental science into new therapeutics and diagnostics.
She is a founding editor of 'Human Molecular Genetics' and a founding fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. She has an active interest in the ethical implications of genetics research and the public understanding of science.
Kay is a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Member of the European Molecular Biology Organization.
Stefan Dunatov is Head of Investment Risk, Strategy and Research at bcIMC, which has $130bn in assets under management for pension and insurance companies. He is also Chair of the 300 Club, a global group of investment professionals aiming to improve investment governance and strategy for asset owners and stakeholders.
Previously, he was Chief Investment Officer at Coal Investments (UK) and has also worked at Deutsche Asset Management, Equitas Insurance, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand and HSBC. He studied economics and law at the University of Auckland and completed his Master's in economics at the London School of Economics.
Dr Jeremy Farrar
Before joining Wellcome in October 2013, Jeremy was Director of the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Vietnam for 18 years. His research interests were infectious diseases, tropical health and emerging infections. He has published over 500 peer-reviewed scientific papers, mentored many dozens of students and fellows, and served as Chair on several advisory boards for governments and global organisations, including the World Health Organization. He was named 12th in Fortune's list of the World's 50 Greatest Leaders in 2015.
Jeremy was appointed OBE in 2005 for services to tropical medicine, was awarded the Memorial Medal and the Ho Chi Minh City Medal by the Government of Vietnam, and has been honoured by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. He is a Fellow of both the Academy of Medical Sciences and the Royal Society.
Head of Risk
Sarah joined Wellcome in 2008 and is responsible for measurement analysis and recommendations to manage investment risks and associated operational risk.
She was previously chief investment risk officer at the asset management arm of Royal Bank of Scotland Asset Management. She is a non-executive director of the JPM Emerging Markets Income Trust and a member of the Girton College Investment Committee.
Sarah gained an MA in Natural Sciences at Girton College and an MBA at London Business School.
Naguib began his banking career at Salomon Brothers in 1986 and went on to hold a number of senior positions at leading international financial institutions. Over the course of 12 years at Barclays, Naguib served as group finance director and vice-chair and in various business leadership positions. He was CEO of JP Morgan Cazenove, a London-based investment banking business.
Naguib is a former non-executive director of NHS England, and has served as a senior adviser to Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs Service and to the Financial Services Authority in the UK. He has also served as a member of the Board of the UK-US Fulbright Commission. He is currently a non-executive director of Standard Chartered, an international banking group, and of Rothesay Life, a specialist pensions insurer. Naguib spends most of his time as a senior adviser to the Aga Khan Development Network, and serves on the boards of various entities within the Aga Khan Development Network and is chairman of its Endowment Committee.
He was educated at Dulwich College, London, and Cambridge University where he graduated with a degree in economics.
Chief Financial Officer
Tim joined Wellcome in December 2014 and is responsible for the leadership of the Finance and IT departments.
After graduating in chemistry, he joined ICI/Zeneca and trained as an accountant. He has spent the majority of his career in commercial aviation, working for British Airways and, after a short break, at Virgin Atlantic, most recently in the role of Chief Financial Officer.
Chair of the Board of Governors
Eliza Manningham-Buller was educated at Benenden School and Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. She taught for three years before joining MI5 in 1974.
After a career which included a posting to the British Embassy in Washington, Eliza became Deputy Director General, with responsibility for operations, before leading MI5 as Director General from 2002 to 2007.
She was appointed an independent, crossbench peer in the House of Lords in 2008. She has been a member of the Privileges and Conduct Committee, the Joint Committee on the National Security Strategy, and the Science and Technology Committee.
Eliza joined Wellcome as a governor in 2008 and the Council of Imperial College in 2009. She was the Chair of Council from 2011 to 2015.
In 2011, Eliza gave the Reith lectures with Aung San Suu Kyi on Securing Freedom. In 2015, she became the Co-President of Chatham House, Royal Institute of International Affairs.
David is chair of JP Morgan Cazenove and a vice-chair of JP Morgan. He joined Cazenove & Co in 1969 from Panmure Gordon. In 1972 he became the firm's dealing partner and was subsequently responsible for the institutional equity department. In 1986 he became the partner in charge of the firm's capital markets department. He became chair of Cazenove Group plc on incorporation in 2001 and JPMorgan Cazenove in 2005 on the setting up of the joint venture with JPMorgan. David was appointed chair of Cazenove Capital Holdings in 2005. He was a non-executive director of Rio Tinto Limited and Rio Tinto plc from 2000 to 2010, and is a member of the Takeover Panel Appeal Board and a trustee of the Royal Anniversary Trust.
Managing Partner and Chief Investment Officer
Nick is directly responsible for Wellcome's global equity, FX and derivatives exposure, as well as playing a key role in broader investment strategy and management of the Investment Team.
Nick joined Wellcome in 2007 from BlackRock Investment Management where he was Head of the Asia Pacific investment team and co-head of Emerging Markets. He has 27 years' professional experience in Asia, and 22 years' experience in global equity markets.
He graduated in Modern History and Economics from Balliol College, Oxford, and is a CFA charter holder. Before joining BlackRock in 1997, Nick lived in Hong Kong for nine years. He is a Chinese speaker. He started his career in the Diplomatic Service.
Nick is Chair of the Imperial College London Endowment Fund and a Non-Executive Director of the Foreign and Colonial Investment Trust. He's also a Board Member of the UK Investor Forum, which aims to align the interests of listed companies and long-term shareholders.
Michael Moritz is the Chairman and former Managing Partner of Sequoia Capital and has invested in companies such as Google, Yahoo!, PayPal and LinkedIn. Before joining Sequoia Capital in 1986, he worked at Time Warner and was a founder of Technologic Partners. Michael holds an M.A. from the University of Oxford and an MBA from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2013 for services to promoting British economic interests and philanthropic work.
Peter Pereira Gray
Managing Partner and Chief Executive Officer
Peter joined Wellcome in January 2001. He works with a team managing Wellcome's £20 billion multi-asset global investment portfolio. Peter's day-to-day responsibilities include overseeing Wellcome's privately held assets (private equity, real estate, venture capital and private direct holdings). In addition, he is Chair of the farming and land management business, FarmCare Ltd, and of Premier Marinas Ltd. Peter is also a Main Board Director of Vero Group Limited, the newly formed student housing joint venture with Goldman Sachs.
He is a life member and past Chair of the Investment Property Forum, a past founding and advisory board member and member of the management board of INREV, a member of the Bank of England Commercial and Residential Property Forums, and a Fellow of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.
Peter is also an Advisory Board member for Composition Capital Partners, an honorary vice-president of Cambridge University Land Society, a Life Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, and an Advisory Board member and Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Continuing Professional Development.
Emeritus Partner of Investments
Danny joined Wellcome in 2005, having previously been a Managing Director of Goldman Sachs in its investment management division. Before joining Goldman Sachs in 1996, Danny's career was focused on Asian financial markets.
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