Antibiotic-resistant bacteria currently kill 700,000 people a year, and the number could rise if the problem is not addressed. Innovation is vital to address the overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics in human and animal health, which drives the rise and spread of resistance.
Some of the most inspiring are happening in lower and middle-income countries, where the problem is greatest, and show the importance of good ideas, collaboration, and the will to intervene and implement.
India: new ways to fund antibiotic development
The pace at which new antibiotics are developed and approved globally has dropped dramatically over the past 30 years. Even today, with the growing sense of a looming crisis, there aren't many new treatments being developed.
But in India, new ways to provide public funding, coupled with innovative start-ups, may help to change that.
The Indian government has invested in technology campuses called incubators, which provide companies with state-of-the-art equipment and facilities. These incubators help to speed up the development of new antibiotics, increasing the chances of treatments becoming available for patients worldwide.
One of these companies is Bugworks, a small start-up in Bangalore that's at the cutting edge of antibiotic development. Early support from the Indian government helped Bugworks secure funding from the international antibiotic R&D partnership, CARB-X, and one of the antibiotics that it’s developing is currently in Phase 2 clinical trials.
Tanzania: changing how antibiotics are dispensed
People in rural Tanzania often have to travel long distances to access the country’s healthcare system. So in the past, they would usually buy antibiotics from unregulated local shops. They had scant awareness of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, and little was being done to prevent superbugs spreading.
That was until the government of Tanzania, its Pharmacy Council and international non-governmental organisation Management Sciences for Health changed how antibiotics are dispensed. They set up a national network of accredited drug dispensing outlets, known as ADDOs.
Trained drug dispensers now work in more than 12,000 of these shops across Tanzania to sell appropriate antibiotics, educate people and reduce the incidence of drug-resistant infections across the country. This pioneering initiative is being extended to other countries in Africa and beyond.
South Africa: empowering hospital pharmacists
While plenty of guidelines exist to prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant superbugs in hospitals, they are often not implemented.
In South Africa, a pilot project to improve this was started in the emergency wards of a single private hospital in Johannesburg, run by health provider Netcare.
The project empowered hospital pharmacists. Trained in antimicrobial stewardship, they now work with doctors, nurses and patients to advise on which are the most appropriate antibiotics to take, and when.
Their work, which has already lowered antimicrobial resistance rates, has now been expanded across 47 hospitals in the Netcare group – and will soon be extended into South Africa’s public hospitals.
Colombia: detecting superbugs in poultry
In Colombia, a team of research scientists are working to reduce the levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the country's poultry and livestock.
Chickens, pigs and other farm animals are often fed antibiotics, driving the evolution of resistant superbugs. Colombia has had no way of knowing the extent of the problem.
To find out, scientists partnered with farmers and retailers to create the country’s first national surveillance programme for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chickens.
By detecting and auditing the appearance of superbugs, the programme is helping to change both the perceptions and practice of antibiotic use in Colombia.
The programme is currently being expanded across the country and into other livestock.