Understanding an animal infection like bluetongue could help us tackle related viruses, like Zika and chikungunya, that infect people.
2. Learning from the liver how to regenerate
The liver is a fascinating organ, not least because it can grow back after injury or surgery. If we knew how it recognises that it’s damaged, and how it regenerates, could we use that knowledge to help treat diseases like liver cancer?
Rather than studying real livers, or cells grown in a flat dish, Meri Huch has managed to create small liver organoids. These are groups of cells, grown in 3D, that are able to recreate the important structures and behaviours of the real-life organ. Her work at the University of Cambridge is funded through a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship.
3. A pharmaceutical fix for drug resistance
Drug-resistant infections is a priority area for Wellcome. We need new antibiotics, and we need to look after the ones we have more carefully. But every time we take an antibiotic, it risks promoting the development of resistant genes in our gut bacteria.
Ryan Donnelly is Professor of Pharmaceutical Technology at Queen’s University Belfast, and has a Wellcome Collaborative Award to develop microneedles for delivering antibiotics across the skin.
If successful, it will mean we have a way of taking new and existing antibiotics – and other drugs – that is as simple as a pill but doesn’t ever go through the gut.
Her PhD, funded through a Wellcome Research Award for Health Professionals, involves interviewing critical care nurses from two NHS hospitals to understand their experiences of moral distress and ethical issues they encounter while carrying out clinical care.
Research suggests that moral distress is associated with ‘compassion fatigue’, which can affect the quality of patient care and cause nurses to leave their jobs.
5. Network analysis to improve mental health diagnoses
Can we improve the way mental disorders are classified? At the moment, people with the same symptoms can get different diagnoses, while those with different symptoms can get the same diagnosis. And, of course, people can experience symptoms of more than one disorder at a time.
Knowing how such symptoms relate to each other, and how they develop through childhood, could help to improve psychiatric classification and eventually help treat people more effectively.
At the University of Liverpool, Praveetha Patalay has a Seed Award in Science, which she is using to test whether network analysis can help to unpick the complex interactions between different mental health symptoms.
Differences between her mathematical models and her experimental results point to where new discoveries and understanding are needed. This kind of new knowledge could lead to faster and better ways to treat people, and limit the rise of antibiotic resistance.
7. From eyeball injections to eye drops for sight loss
Each year, 26,000 people in the UK develop wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD). This is a condition in which blood vessels grow where they shouldn’t at the back of the eye. The result is that your central vision slowly erodes in a fog of smoky greyness. Current treatment involves the injection of a drug directly into the eyeball once a month.
Exonate, based in Cambridge and Nottingham, have a Seeding Drug Discovery Award from Wellcome’s Innovations team to optimise a new drug for wet AMD. Their drug targets a protein to switch off the growth of blood vessels in the eye, which should stop further sight loss. It will also be in the form of eye drops, avoiding all those injections.
8. Making a meal of mini-livestock (aka insects)
Feeding the world a healthy diet without destroying the planet is a big challenge for the 21st century. We almost certainly have to eat less meat, which is far more damaging to both people and the environment than a plant-based diet. But how will we get all the protein and micronutrients, like zinc and iron, that we need?
Marcel Dicke, at Wageningen University in the Netherlands, has been funded through Our Planet, Our Health to lead a collaboration exploring the potential of insects as sustainable and healthy food.
She is interviewing food bank users, organisers and volunteers, as well as speaking to the health and social service professionals who refer people to food banks.
In the UK, food banks are run by charities rather than the state. Claire’s research will investigate how food banks work in practice, define more clearly the health challenges of food poverty, and inform future policies so that everyone has access to a healthy and nutritious diet.
10. Population data for mental health planning
Looking at large groups of people over long periods of time is helping to develop a better understanding of how schizophrenia and other serious mental health conditions develop, and who is most at risk.
James Kirkbride has a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship from Wellcome for his research at University College London. He uses data collected from people throughout their lives to identify environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, such as urban lifestyles, migration and ethnicity. For example, he has found that refugees are at higher risk compared with other people who have migrated from the same countries.
These 10 projects are a fraction of the thousands of researchers in the UK and around the world whose work is funded by Wellcome. Our support helps them to generate new knowledge, explore what good health means, and create better ways to study, treat and prevent disease.